"… I seem […] only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me". – Isaac Newton.
Was Freunde mit und für uns tun, ist auch ein Erlebtes; denn es stärkt und fördert unsere Persönlichkeit. Was Feinde gegen uns unternehmen, erleben wir nicht, wir erfahren’s nur, lehnen’s ab und schützen uns dagegen wie gegen Frost, Sturm, Regen und Schloßenwetter oder sonst äußere Übel, die zu erwarten sind.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), Maximen und Reflexionen. Aphorismen und Aufzeichnungen.
Ein Virus ist Leben in der einfachsten Form. Es ist die minimalistische Reduktion eines Organismus auf seine wesentlichen Funktionselemente. Noch pragmatischer ist ein Virus ein Behälter mit genetischem Code mit einem effizienten molekularen Mechanismus, der es ihm ermöglicht, in eine Wirtszelle eines Organismus einzudringen, der sich selbstständig reproduzieren kann. Als molekulare Maschine kann ein Virus der Form und der zerstörerischen Kraft des Todessterns in der Star-Wars-Saga ähneln. Daher ist es eine Art molekulare Maschine, die wir absolut nicht in uns haben wollen!
Wie der große Goethe sagt, ist der Feind Teil unserer Erfahrung und wir müssen ihn jagen und uns tatsächlich vor anderen möglichen Feinden schützen. Dieser epische Naturkrieg veranlasste mich, diesen Blog zu starten, in dem ich mitteilen werde, was ich über diese gefährliche molekulare Maschine lerne.
Difficilmente è vinto colui che sa conoscere le forze sue e quelle del nemico.
Nicollò Machiavelli in Dell’arte della guerra (1519-1520)
Un virus è la vita nella forma più semplice. È la riduzione minimalista di un organismo ai suoi elementi essenziali di funzionalità. Più pragmaticamente, un virus è un contenitore di codice genetico dotato di un efficiente meccanismo molecolare che gli consente d’invadere una cellula ospite di un organismo capace di riprodursi autonomamente. Come macchina molecolare, un virus può assomigliare nella forma e potere distruttivo, alla Morte Nera della saga di Star Wars. Pertanto, è un tipo di macchina molecolare che non vogliamo assolutamente avere dentro di noi!
La diffusione del coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ha prodotto una nuova pandemia, ovvero una infezione causata da un agente patogeno che colpisce l’intera popolazione di una specie vivente, in questo caso quella umana. Questa situazione di emergenza globale è il risultato di una competizione naturale tra specie viventi che ci rammenta di essere ancora un tassello nell’ecosistema di Gaia. Tuttavia, anche se sia sempre arduo da credere visto lo stato in cui abbiamo ridotto il nostro pianeta, siamo la forma di vita più intelligente nell’universo conosciuto. Quindi sarebbe abbastanza imbarazzante essere sconfitti da un nemico invisibile.
One year ago, I wrote an article about the modelling of the egg shapes, promising at one point to come back on the topics. A next step in studying eggs shapes is to look to real one or a copy of it. A happy occasion for experimenting with the model using three-dimensional graphics and 3d Printing! That is a natural indeed step: take half of the symmetric curve representing the egg shape
where and are two parameters, and rotate it around the central axis
This fully updated volume presents a wide range of methods for synthesis, surface modification, characterization and application of nano-sized materials (nanoparticles) in the life science and medical fields, with a focus on drug delivery and diagnostics. Beginning with a section on the synthesis of nanoparticles and their applications, the book continues with detailed chapters on nanoparticle derivatization, bio-interface, and nanotoxicity, as well as nanoparticle characterization and advanced methods development. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition serves as an ideal guide for scientists at all levels of expertise to a wide range of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications including functional protein studies, drug delivery, immunochemistry, imaging, and more.
I have contributed with a chapter (14) titled The Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Peptides on Gold Nanosurfaces.
In this chapter a short tutorial on the preparation of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a peptide in solution at the interface of an uncoated gold nanosurface is given. Specifically, the step-by-step procedure will give guidance to set up the simulation of a 16 amino acid long antimicrobial peptide on a gold layer using the program Gromacs for Molecular Dynamics simulations.
“If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.”
SunTzu. The Art of War
A virus is the Bauhaus of the form of life: the minimalist reduction of an organism to its essential element of functionality. More pragmatically, it is a container of genetic code provided with a smart mechanism that allows it to invade cells of another host organism. As a molecular machine, a virus can resemble in shape and destructive power the Death Star spaceship of the Star War saga. Therefore, it is a molecular machine that we do not definitively want to have within us!
The spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has produced a new pandemic, i.e. an infection caused by a pathogen that affects the entire population of a living species, in this case the human one. This global emergency situation is the result of a natural competition between living species that reminds us that we are still a small brick of the Gaia ecosystem. However, although it is always difficult to believe given the state in which we have reduced our planet, we are the most intelligent life form in the known universe. So it would be quite embarrassing to be defeated by an invisible enemy.
In 1926, the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) made a fundamental mathematical discovery that had a profound impact on the study of the molecular world (in 1933, Schrödinger was awarded with the Nobel prize in Physics just 7 years later his breakthrough discovery). He discovered that a state of a quantum system composed by particles (such as electrons and nucleons) can be described by postulating the existence of a function of the particle coordinates and time, called state function or wave function (, psi function). This function are solution of a wave equation: the so-called the Schrödinger equation (SE). Although the SE equation can be solved analytically only for relatively simple cases, the development of computer and numerical methods has made possible the application of SE to study complex molecular.
Gentilissimi/e Lettori e Lettrici, Dear Reader, Sehr geehrte Leserinnen und Leser,
Grazie mille per aver fatto tappa durante le vostre peregrinazioni cibernautiche nel mio sito web e per dedicare un po’ del vostro tempo nel leggere i miei articoli. Spero che li avete trovati tanto interessanti e utili da continuate a tornare a leggermi. Voglio anticipare alcune delle prossime pubblicazioni. Tra breve usciranno nuovi titoli:
The Logistic Map and the Feigenbaum Constants: a Retro Programming Inspired Excursion.
L’integrazione numerica di equazioni differenziali, parte II: 50 anni fa l’uomo ha messo piede sulla Luna
Retro Programming: Acid-base Titration.
Retro Programming: Plant evolution.
Per il momento auguro a tutti voi di trascorrere con le vostri cari un felice Natale e di avere un nuovo anno pieno di buone notizie.
On the 7 October 2019, Prof Dr Herman Johan Christiaan Berendsen passed away just shortly after his 85 birthday. Prof Berendsen is considered the founder of the molecular dynamics simulation of biological system: the area of theoretical research that also shaped my scientific career. He was working at the University of Groningen in the picturesque Northern part of the Netherlands. It was there that I meet him the first time as it allowed me to conduct research in his lab during the last year of my doctorate researches training at the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. After I completed my doctorate, Herman gave me the opportunity to continue working in his group with a postdoc position within the “Protein Folding” EU Training network. This happens just two years before his retirement and therefore I was also one of his last postdocs. After retirement, Herman dedicated himself to write two books that distillate all his experience in the area of molecular simulation  and in the education . He stated in a project on the social scientific network Researchgate that “I am retired and work occasionally on methods for multiscale simulations.”
This year marks the 150th anniversary of the periodic table of the elements (TPE) which currently has 118 entries, the latest arrival (the Tennessine) was discovered 10 years ago (2009), and I feel obliged as a chemist to give some a small informative contribution to celebrate this important event.
In a recent article, I have explained the Euler’s method for solving ordinary differential equations using as a motivation the fictionalized version in the film Hidden Figures of the scientific contribution of Katherine Goble and her two colleagues to the NASA space program. As an example of application, I have also shown a program written in the awk programming language for calculating the orbits of planets of the solar system. However, my interest in astrodynamics come back to my juvenile age, when still going to high school, my parents decided to gift me a more sophisticated microcomputer than my previous one (the celebrated Commodore VIC 20). So I became a programmer of a Philips MSX VG 8010 that I still jealously own in its original box. So, powered by the versatile Federico Faggin’s Zilog Z80 processor with a clock 3.58 MHz, with an impressive (for a previous owner of a VIC20 with a mere 3.583 kB!) memory of 32 kB RAM , 16kB of video RAM and a dedicated tape-record device as storage system, I started to write more sophisticated in MSX Basic. At that time, I was eagerly following the department “Ricreazioni al Computer” by the famous computer scientist A. K. Dewdney on the magazine “Le Scienze”, the Italian edition of Scientific American. The new microcomputer allowed me to experiment with the fascinating computational topics that Dewdney was offering every month. One of these topics was dedicated to the simulation of stars using the algorithm based on the Euler integration of the Newton equation. Following the instruction of Dewdney, I managed to write a small program in MSX basic and this was the starting of my interest in computational astronomy.
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