“… Mitchell Feigenbaum was an unusual case. He had exactly one published article to his name, and he was working on nothing that seemed to have any particular promise. His hair was a ragged mane, sweeping back from his wide brow in the style of busts of German composers… At the age of twenty he had already become a savant among savants, an ad hoc consultant [at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA] whom scientist would go to see about any expecially intractable problem.”

James Gleick, Chaos: the amazing science of the unpredectable.

This year, on June 30th 2019, **Mitchell J. Feigenbaum** died at the age of 74. Feigenbaum was an American mathematician that became famous with the discovery of the universal constants that bear his name. In the middle of the ’80, reading Le Scienze magazine (the Italian edition of Scientific American) I got to know of the contribution to the chaos theory of this charismatic mathematician. In particular, I was delighted by reading the Douglas Hofstadter’s article in the rubric “Temi Metamagici” ( Methamagical themes) (Scientific American, November 1981). The article explained the emergence of the chaos in the iteration map of the logistic equation, the same equation deeply studied by Feigenbaum. The full story about the Mitchell Feigenbaum and his discovery of his universal constants is delightly narrated in the beautiful book *Chaos:the amazing science of the unpredectable* by J. Gleick [1]. Here it is just another small extract:

“… in the summer of 1975, at a gathering in Aspen, Colorado, he heard Steve Smale

[another key mathematicial in the developing of the chaos theory, NDA]talk about some of the mathematical qualities of the same quadratic difference equation [the same studied by Robert May, NDA]. Smale seemed to think that there were some interesting open questions about the exact point at which the mapping changes from periodic to chaotic. As always, Smale had a sharp instinct for questions worth exploring. Feigenbaum decided to look into it once more.”[1]

To better understand the contribution of Feigenbaum to the chaos theory, we need some background information. The story begin with a 1976 article on Nature [2] by Lord Robert May of Oxford that reported a curious behaviour in the iteration map of the logistic equation. Prof. May was a famous applied mathematics that give key contributions to the theoretical ecology. In his Nature paper, he analyzed the mathematical behaviour of a population of insect described by the Velhulst model of population grow. The mathematician Pierre François Verhulst studied this model in the first half of the 1800 when he was studying population models. He found out that a population cannot growth indefinitively but it is limited by the availability of food. To explain mathematically such process, he used the following differential equation (DE) that consist in the classic law of exponential law with in addition a non-linear term that limit the grow of the population:

The parameter $lambda$ control the spped at which the population grow. May noticed that increasing the value of $lambda$ the behaviour of the DE undergoes a process of period bifurcation that bring to the emergence of a chaotic behaviour.

*Before continuing I will make now a short detour to explain the title of this article. After reading the Hofstadter’s article, in the verge of my BASIC programming fascination, I wrote a program in MSX BASIC language to reproduce the illustration in the article. In my retro-nostalgic archaeology survey, I managed to recover this program from an old magnetic tape. To retrieve the listing of these programs, I have used the open software MSX emulator OpenMSX (https://openmsx.org) but editing the application using this emulator is not in my retro programming intentions! Fortunately, the MSX Basic is Microsoft product, and as such, it is indeed very similar to the other Basic from the same company. I found two great programs that can nicely run native Quick Basic BASIC program on my MacBook and they considerably helped me in this enterprise. One is the PC-BASIC, a Python-based interpreter, and the other the QB64, a QuickBasic compiler. The first application using Python run the code quite slowly so it is not very convenient for calculation intensive program. The second one, as it transforms the BASIC program code in Basic to C++ language, and then compile it. Therefore, it is much faster and useful for producing usable programs for modern computers. Hence, I adapted with little adjustments the orginal MS BASIC codes to run them on the QB64 compiler. I also take the change to clean up a bit the code and add some new feature that will be useful to illustrate this blog. The source code of the program is reported in the Appendix.*

The study of a DE can be performed by using a map of it. A map is a recursive representation of the DE solution. In the case of the logistic equation the map is given by the relation

(1)

A map is a discrete representation of the DE that use the result on the right side of the DE for a certain value of $x_i$ to calculate its next value . A graphically appealing method to describe this process is shown in the Figure 1. The parabolic curve correspond to the equation with $\lambda=2.4$ , the line is used to localize the value of from by tracing the intersection of the horizontal red lines. The iteraction in the Figure 1 start from , the vertical red light indicate the value of that give the value from the intersection of the horizontal red line with on the right. The value of is then calculated (vertical line in and the process continue giving rise to a squared spiral that converge to the fixed point of the equation (1) located in correspoding of the vertical dashed line. A fixed point is a point of convergence (stable point) of divergence (unstable point) of the trajectory generated by the iterative procedure. In the case of the logistic equation, they are calculated by finding the roots of the quadratic equation that correspond to and

For , the hump of the parabola become more prominent withe the increase of the curvature of around the point . This generate a larger spiral trajectory but the trajectory continue to converge to the fixed point, as shown in the figure 2.

When the value of , the slope of the curve approach the value -1 in and the fixed point become unstable. The trajectory undegoes a *bifurcation* as it makes a stable 2-cycle around by oscillating between two new fixed points (see Figure 3).

To better understand what it is happening, we need to look to the position of the fixed points of the second iterate function (indicated as or ). The second iterate is given by the expression and it has 4 fixed points . The two new fixed points are given by the equation latex \lambda=3.05$ is plotted together a iteration trajectory. The latter converges to a cycle that oscillate between the two new fixed points represented by the vertical dashed green line flanking the fixed point .

By further increasing the value of , the pattern of the trajectory even become more complex with the appearance of new attractive cycles of period new bifurcations are generated (see Figure 5).

The doubling period behaviour continue until a value for larger values (as in the trajectory of Figure 6), the trajectory loose any sign of regularity and it enter in a chaotic regime (see in Figure 6 the top iteration plot and the bottom trajectory).

The diagram shown in Figure 7 (sometime called Figenbaum plot) represents the value of the iterated logistic equation versus the parameter and it gives a visual appealing representation of the bifurcation and chaotic regimes. In fact, looking from the left to the right, it is clearly visible how the value of the function bifurcate as the parameters $\lambda$ increases. This creates a sort of vertical banded structures characterized by the occurrence of period duplication till , also called the Feigenbaum point and indicated as $latexs_{\infty}$.

After the article of May, other experts in dynamical systems started to study the iterate of quadratic functions. They were particulary puzzled by the transition from the period doubling to the chaotic regime. As storytellered by Gleick in his book (see the citation above) it was in a seminar by the famous mathematician Steven Smale that Figenbaum got the inspiration for starting his investigation on this problem. In his early research, Figenbaum used a card programmable HP 65 pocket calculator to evaluate the result of the iterations of the function . Soon after, it noticed that the ratio of the distance between consecutive biforcations converges to a definite value [3]. In particular, he considered the distances $\latex d_k=b_{k+1}-b_k$ with the value of at the bifurcation points (Figure 8, the first 4 for the logistic function are shown).

Therefore, as first guess, the ratio

$\latex \delta=\frac{\delta_k}{\delta_{k+1}}$

should give the relation for a geometric decrease of distances. In reality, it is only an approximation as the distance change from bifurcation to bifurcation [6]. However, in the limit of large value of k this relation is correct

The BASIC program reported in the appendix implement an algorithm for the calculation of the approximate value of the Figenbaum constant (see [6] for the description).

Figenbaum also found out that differently by the value of the Figenbaum point, that dipends by the scalling factor, the Figenbaum constant retain the same value for different type of interated functions [4,5] (as for example the exponential function reported in Figure 9).

These findings, tough very interesting, would remain a mathematics curiosity if few years after their publication, ana italian physicist studying the stability of the laser light come across with a phenomena involving period-doubling. This discovery was followed by many other involved other dynamics system, and all of them shared a same Universal constant: the Figenbaum constant.

The reader interested to read a full story about M. J. Fiegenbaum’s live and scientific work can find a wonderful article signed by Stephen Wolfram on his blog [7].

## BIBLIOGRAPHY

- J. Gleick. Chaos: Making a New Science.
- May, Robert M. (1976). “Simple mathematical models with very complicated dynamics”.
*Nature*.**261**(5560): 459–467. - Feigenbaum, M.J., 1978. Quantitative universality for a class of nonlinear transformations.
*Journal of statistical physics*,*19*(1), pp.25-52. - Feigenbaum, M. J. “The Universal Metric Properties of Nonlinear Transformations.”
*J. Stat. Phys.***21**, 669-706, 1979. - Feigenbaum, M.J., 1983. Universal behavior in nonlinear systems.
*Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena*,*7*(1-3), pp.16-39. - Peitgen, H.O., Jürgens, H. and Saupe, D., 2006.
*Chaos and fractals: new frontiers of science*. Springer Science & Business Media. This book is an excellent introduction to this topics (in particular read the chapter 1, 10 and 11). - Stephen Wolfram”Mitchell Feigenbaum (1944‑2019), 4.66920160910299067185320382…” : https://writings.stephenwolfram.com/2019/07/mitchell-feigenbaum-1944-2019-4-66920160910299067185320382 (last accessed 28/12/2019)

## APPENDIX

This is the program in BASIC language that was used to generate the picture in this article. The program is provided as it is and the author decline responsabilities for bugs and/or incorrect results that it may produce (see About). You are welcome to improve it and if you do so please send me back your updated version!

```
'================================================================
' PROGRAMMA : MAPPE_LOGISTICHE.BAS
' DESCRIZIONE: QUESTO PROGRAMMA CALCOLA LE PROPRIETA' DINAMICHE
' DELLA FUNZIONE LOGISTICA
' PER MAGGIORI INFORMAZIONE SI CONSULTI
' L'ARTICOLO DI David HOFSTATDER
' "Strani attarttori:schemi matematici collocati fra
' l'ordine e il caos' APPARSO NELLA RUBRICA
' "TEMI METAMAGICI" NEL NUMERO 162 (Febbraio 1982)
' DI LE SCIENZE.
' AUTORE : D. ROCCATANO
' CREATO NEL : 1985
'================================================================
DIM SHARED XI, CI, CF, NITER, H AS INTEGER
DIM SHARED G, L AS DOUBLE
CF = 2
CI = 12
G = 1 / 500
NITER = 500
SCREEN _NEWIMAGE(800, 725, 256)
'WIDTH 80
CLS
COLOR 1, 15
OUT &H3C8, 0
OUT &H3C9, 63
OUT &H3C9, 63
OUT &H3C9, 63
' ==== MENU DEL PROGRAMMA =====
LOCATE 5, 5: PRINT "STUDIO DELLE ITERATE DELLA FUNZIONE LOGISTICA"
LOCATE 10, 10: PRINT "[1] STUDIO NELLE FUNZIONI ITERATE"
LOCATE 11, 10: PRINT "[2] STUDIO DELLA FUNZIONE LOGISTICA vs NUMERO D'ITERAZIONI"
LOCATE 12, 10: PRINT "[3] STUDIO DELLA FUNZIONE LOGISTICA vs PARAMETRO LAMBDA"
LOCATE 13, 10: PRINT "[4] CALCOLO DELLA COSTANTE DI FIGENBAUM "
LOCATE 14, 10: PRINT "[5] ESCI "
LOCATE 16, 12: INPUT "Scegli una opzione: "; H
SELECT CASE H
CASE 1
MENU1 H
CASE 2
TRAJ H
CASE 3
BIFORC
CASE 4
FIGEN
CASE 5
END
END SELECT
RUN
END
' ==== PARTE 1 =====
SUB MENU1 (H)
SHARED CI, CF, NITER
SHARED G, L
WHILE HH <> 5
CLS
LOCATE 5, 3: PRINT "VISUALIZZAZIONE PUNTI STAZIONARI DI FUNZIONI LOGISTICHE"
LOCATE 8, 10: PRINT "1] x=f(x)=L*x*(1-x)"
LOCATE 9, 10: PRINT "2] x=f(f(x))"
LOCATE 10, 10: PRINT "3] x=f(f(f(x)))"
LOCATE 11, 10: PRINT "4] x=f(f(f(f(x))))"
LOCATE 12, 10: PRINT "5] RITORNA AL MENU PRINCIPALE"
LOCATE 14, 12: INPUT "Scegli una opzione: "; HH
IF HH = 5 THEN EXIT WHILE
LOCATE 16, 14: INPUT "Inserisci il valore di lambda (L)"; L
PRINT
LOCATE 18, 14: INPUT "Inserisci il valore iniziale di x"; XS
'
' Disegna il grafico
'
FRAME H
LOCATE 34, 66: PRINT "x"
LOCATE 34, 19: PRINT "0"
LOCATE 34, 82: PRINT "1"
LOCATE 34, 50: PRINT "0.5"
LOCATE 10, 2: PRINT USING "L = #.##"; L
LOCATE 11, 2: PRINT USING "X0= #.##"; XS
'
' Vai all subroutine di rappresentatione della funzione
'
SELECT CASE HH
CASE 1
ITER1 XS, L
CASE 2
ITER2 XS, L
CASE 3
ITER3 XS, L
CASE 4
ITER4 XS, L
END SELECT
WEND
END SUB
' SUBROUTINES
SUB ITER1 (XS, L)
' ---- ITERAZIONE FUNZIONE N. 1 ---
SHARED XI, CI, CF, NITER
LOCATE 5, 10: PRINT "f(x)"
' TRACCIA LA POSIZIONE DEL PUNTI CRITICI
XCP = 1 - 1 / L
LOCATE 12, 2: PRINT USING "XC= #.##"; XCP
LINE (FNX(XCP), 25)-(FNX(XCP), 525), 2, , 63
FUNC1 G, L
X = XS
Y = L * X * (1 - X)
LINE (FNX(X), 525)-(FNX(X), FNY(Y)), CI
FOR K = 1 TO NITER
Y = FNF(X, L)
N = 500 * Y + XI
LINE (150 + (K - 1), 650 - 100 * X)-(150 + K, 650 - 100 * Y), CI
LINE (FNX(X), FNY(Y))-(N, FNY(Y)), CI
M = FNF(Y, L)
LINE (N, FNY(Y))-(N, 525 - 500 * M), CI
X = Y
NEXT K
FUNC1 G, L
K$ = INPUT$(1)
END SUB
SUB ITER2 (XS, L)
SHARED XI, CI, CF, NITER
' ---- ITERAZIONE FUNZIONE N. 2 ---
' TRACCIA LA POSIZIONE DEL PUNTI CRITICI
XCP = 1 - 1 / L
IF (L >= 3) THEN
XCP1 = ((L + 1) + SQR((L + 1) * (L - 3))) / (2 * L)
XCP2 = ((L + 1) - SQR((L + 1) * (L - 3))) / (2 * L)
LOCATE 13, 2: PRINT USING "XC1= #.##"; XCP1
LOCATE 14, 2: PRINT USING "XC=2 #.##"; XCP2
LINE (FNX(XCP1), 25)-(FNX(XCP1), 525), 2, , 63
LINE (FNX(XCP2), 25)-(FNX(XCP2), 525), 2, , 63
END IF
LOCATE 12, 2: PRINT USING "X*= #.##"; XCP
LOCATE 13, 2: PRINT USING "XR= #.##"; XCP1
LOCATE 14, 2: PRINT USING "XL= #.##"; XCP2
LINE (FNX(XCP), 25)-(FNX(XCP), 525), 2, , 63
FUNC2 G, L
LOCATE 5, 10: PRINT "f(f(x))"
X = XS
S = FNF(X, L)
Y = FNF(S, L)
LINE (FNX(X), 525)-(FNX(X), FNY(Y)), CI
FOR K = 1 TO NITER
S = FNF(X, L)
Y = FNF(S, L)
N = 500 * Y + XI
LINE (FNX(X), FNY(Y))-(N, FNY(Y)), CI
S = FNF(Y, L)
M = FNF(S, L)
LINE (N, FNY(Y))-(N, 525 - 500 * M), CI
X = Y
NEXT K
FOR K = 1 TO NITER
Y = FNF(X, L)
N = 500 * Y + XI
LINE (150 + (K - 1), 650 - 100 * X)-(150 + K, 650 - 100 * Y), CI
LINE (FNX(X), FNY(Y))-(N, FNY(Y)), CI
M = FNF(Y, L)
LINE (N, FNY(Y))-(N, 525 - 500 * M), CI
X = Y
NEXT K
FUNC2 G, L
K$ = INPUT$(1)
END SUB
SUB ITER3 (XS, L)
' ---- ITERAZIONE FUNZIONE N. 3 ---
SHARED XI, CI, CF, NITER
FUNC3 G, L
LOCATE 5, 9: PRINT "f(f(f(x)))"
X = XS
S = FNF(X, L)
V = FNF(S, L)
Y = FNF(V, L)
LINE (FNX(X), 525)-(FNX(X), FNY(Y)), CI
FOR K = 0 TO NITER
S = FNF(X, L)
V = FNF(S, L)
Y = FNF(V, L)
N = 500 * Y + XI
LINE (FNX(X), FNY(Y))-(N, FNY(Y)), CI
S = FNF(Y, L)
P = FNF(S, L)
M = FNF(P, L)
LINE (N, FNY(Y))-(N, 525 - 500 * M), CI
X = Y
NEXT K
FOR K = 1 TO NITER
Y = FNF(X, L)
N = 500 * Y + XI
LINE (150 + (K - 1), 650 - 100 * X)-(150 + K, 650 - 100 * Y), CI
LINE (FNX(X), FNY(Y))-(N, FNY(Y)), CI
M = FNF(Y, L)
LINE (N, FNY(Y))-(N, 525 - 500 * M), CI
X = Y
NEXT K
FUNC3 G, L
K$ = INPUT$(1)
END SUB
SUB ITER4 (XS, L)
SHARED XI, CI, CF, NITER
' ---- ITERAZIONE FUNZIONE N. 4 ---
FUNC4 G, L
LOCATE 5, 5: PRINT "f(f(f(f(x))))"
X = XS
K = FNF(X, L)
V = FNF(K, L)
F = FNF(V, L)
Y = FNF(F, L)
LINE (FNX(X), 525)-(FNX(X), FNY(Y)), CI
FOR K = 1 TO NITER
K = FNF(X, L)
V = FNF(K, L)
F = FNF(V, L)
Y = FNF(F, L)
N = 500 * Y + 150
LINE (FNX(X), FNY(Y))-(N, FNY(Y)), CI
S = FNF(Y, L)
P = FNF(S, L)
T = FNF(P, L)
M = FNF(T, L)
LINE (N, FNY(Y))-(N, 525 - 500 * M), CI
X = Y
NEXT K
FOR K = 1 TO NITER
Y = FNF(X, L)
N = 500 * Y + XI
LINE (150 + (K - 1), 650 - 100 * X)-(150 + K, 650 - 100 * Y), CI
LINE (FNX(X), FNY(Y))-(N, FNY(Y)), CI
M = FNF(Y, L)
LINE (N, FNY(Y))-(N, 525 - 500 * M), CI
X = Y
NEXT K
FUNC4 G, L
K$ = INPUT$(1)
END SUB
SUB FRAME (H)
' DRAW THE GRAPH FRAME
SHARED XI, CF
CLS
XI = 150
XF = XI + 500
' DRAW GRAPH FRAME
LINE (XI, 25)-(XF, 525), CF, B
IF H < 2 THEN LINE (XI, 525)-(XF, 25), CF
' DRAW x-ticks
FOR I = XI TO XF STEP 5
LINE (I, 25)-(I, 25 + 5), CF
LINE (I, 525)-(I, 525 - 5), CF
NEXT
FOR I = XI TO XF STEP 50
LINE (I, 25)-(I, 25 + 10), CF
LINE (I, 525)-(I, 525 - 10), CF
NEXT
' DRAW y-tics
FOR I = 525 TO 25 STEP -5
LINE (XI, I)-(XI + 5, I), CF
LINE (XF, I)-(XF - 5, I), CF
NEXT
FOR I = 525 TO 25 STEP -50
LINE (XI, I)-(XI + 10, I), CF
LINE (XF, I)-(XF - 10, I), CF
NEXT
LOCATE 2, 17: PRINT "1"
LOCATE 18, 15: PRINT "0.5"
LOCATE 33, 17: PRINT "0"
IF H = 1 THEN
' Disegna il grafico della funzione rispetto alle iterazioni
LINE (XI, 550)-(XF, 650), CF, B
LOCATE 35, 17: PRINT "1"
LOCATE 38, 15: PRINT "0.5"
LOCATE 41, 17: PRINT "0"
LOCATE 42, 19: PRINT "0"
LOCATE 42, 82: PRINT "500"
LOCATE 42, 50: PRINT "250"
LOCATE 42, 60: PRINT "Iterazione"
' DRAW x-ticks
FOR I = XI TO XF STEP 5
LINE (I, 550)-(I, 550 + 5), CF
LINE (I, 650)-(I, 650 - 5), CF
NEXT
FOR I = XI TO XF STEP 50
LINE (I, 550)-(I, 550 + 10), CF
LINE (I, 650)-(I, 650 - 10), CF
NEXT
' DRAW y-tics
FOR I = 650 TO 550 STEP -5
LINE (XI, I)-(XI + 5, I), CF
LINE (XF, I)-(XF - 5, I), CF
NEXT
FOR I = 650 TO 550 STEP -50
LINE (XI, I)-(XI + 10, I), CF
LINE (XF, I)-(XF - 10, I), CF
NEXT
END IF
END SUB
SUB TRAJ (H)
SHARED CI, XI
' ==== CALCOLO 2 ====
' ==== Traiettorie della funzione ====
LOCATE 18, 14: INPUT "Inserisci il valore iniziale di lambda L"; L
PRINT
LOCATE 19, 14: INPUT " Inserisci il valore iniziale di x"; XS
FRAME H
LOCATE 1, 5: PRINT "GRAFICO DELLA FUNZIONE LOGISTICA f(x)=L*x*(1-x) VERSO IL NUMERO DI ITERAZIONI"
LOCATE 5, 10: PRINT "f(x)"
LOCATE 34, 66: PRINT "Iterazione"
LOCATE 34, 19: PRINT "0"
LOCATE 34, 82: PRINT "500"
LOCATE 34, 50: PRINT "250"
LOCATE 15, 2: PRINT USING "LAMBDA : ##.###"; L
LOCATE 16, 2: PRINT USING "X0: ##.###"; XS
X = XS
' === ELIMIINATE TRANSIENTS ===
FOR I = 1 TO 100
X = L * X * (1 - X)
NEXT I
XO = X
FOR I = 2 TO 499
X = L * X * (1 - X)
LINE (150 + (I - 1), 525 - 500 * XO)-(150 + I, 525 - 500 * X), CI
XO = X
NEXT I
K$ = INPUT$(1)
END SUB
SUB BIFORC
' ==== CALCOLO 3 ====
' ==== GRAFICO DELLE BIFORCAZIONI
WHILE HH <> 5
CLS
LOCATE 5, 3: PRINT "VISUALIZZAZIONE PUNTI STAZIONARI DI FUNZIONI LOGISTICHE"
LOCATE 8, 10: PRINT "1] f(x)=f(x)=L*x*(1-x)"
LOCATE 9, 10: PRINT "2] f(x)=L*X IF X< 1/2"
LOCATE 10, 10: PRINT " f(x)=L*(1-X) IF X> 1/2"
LOCATE 11, 10: PRINT "3] f(x)=x*exp(l*(1-x))"
LOCATE 12, 10: PRINT "4] RITORNA AL MENU PRINCIPALE"
LOCATE 14, 12: INPUT "Scegli una opzione: "; HH
IF HH = 4 THEN EXIT WHILE
IF HH > 0 AND HH < 5 THEN
LOCATE 18, 14: INPUT "Inserisci il valore iniziale di L:"; L0
LOCATE 19, 14: INPUT "Inserisci il valore finale di L :"; LF
LOCATE 20, 14: INPUT "Inserisci numero d'iterazioni :"; NITER
FRAME H
LOCATE 5, 15: PRINT "f(x)"
LOCATE 41, 22: PRINT USING "NUMERO DI ITERAZIONI= #####"; NITER
LOCATE 34, 66: PRINT "L"
LOCATE 34, 19: PRINT L0
LOCATE 34, 82: PRINT LF
LOCATE 34, 50: PRINT L0 + (LF - L0) / 2
SELECT CASE HH
CASE 1
LOGISTIC L0, LF, NITER
CASE 2
CUSPID L0, LF, NITER
CASE 3
EXPON L0, LF, NITER
END SELECT
END IF
WEND
END SUB
SUB LOGISTIC (L0, LF, NITER)
LOCATE 38, 22: PRINT "f(x)=f(x)=L*x*(1-x)"
L0 = L0
LF = LF
XS = 0.5
S = (LF - L0) / 500
DD = 0
FOR L = L0 TO LF STEP S
X = XS
FOR I = 1 TO 100
X = L * X * (1 - X)
NEXT I
FOR I = 1 TO NITER
X = L * X * (1 - X)
IF X >= 0 AND X <= 1 THEN
PSET (150 + (L - L0) / S, 525 - 500 * X), CI
END IF
NEXT I
NEXT L
K$ = INPUT$(1)
END SUB
SUB CUSPID (L0, LF, NITER)
LOCATE 38, 22: PRINT "2] f(x)=L*X IF X< 1/2"
LOCATE 39, 22: PRINT " f(x)=L*(1-X) IF X> 1/2"
XS = 0.3
S = (LF - L0) / 500
DD = 0
FOR L = L0 TO LF STEP S
X = XS
FOR I = 1 TO 100
IF X < 0.5 THEN
X = L * X
ELSE
X = L * (1 - X)
END IF
NEXT I
FOR I = 1 TO NITER
IF X < 0.5 THEN
X = L * X
ELSE
X = L * (1 - X)
END IF
IF X >= 0 AND X <= 1 THEN
PSET (150 + (L - L0) / S, 525 - 500 * X), CI
END IF
NEXT I
NEXT L
K$ = INPUT$(1)
END SUB
SUB EXPON (L0, LF, NITER)
LOCATE 38, 22: PRINT "3] f(x)=x*exp(l*(1-x))"
XS = 0.3
S = (LF - L0) / 500
DD = 0
FOR L = L0 TO LF STEP S
X = XS
FOR I = 1 TO 100
X = X * EXP(L * (1 - X))
NEXT I
FOR I = 1 TO NITER
X = X * EXP(L * (1 - X))
IF X >= 0 AND X <= 1 THEN
PSET (150 + (L - L0) / S, 525 - 500 * X), CI
END IF
NEXT I
NEXT L
K$ = INPUT$(1)
END SUB
SUB FUNC1 (G, L) ' === DISEGNA LA FUNZIONE 1 ===
SHARED CF
FOR X = 0 TO 1 STEP G
Y = FNF(X, L)
PSET (FNX(X), FNY(Y)), CF
NEXT
END SUB
SUB FUNC2 (G, L) ' ==== DISEGNA LA FUNCTIONE 2 ===
SHARED CF
FOR X = 0 TO 1 STEP G
K = FNF(X, L)
Y = FNF(K, L)
PSET (FNX(X), FNY(Y)), CF
NEXT
END SUB
SUB FUNC3 (G, L) ' === DISEGNA LA FUNCTIONE 3 ====
SHARED CF
FOR X = 0 TO 1 STEP G
K = FNF(X, L)
V = FNF(K, L)
Y = FNF(V, L)
PSET (FNX(X), FNY(Y)), CF
NEXT
END SUB
SUB FUNC4 (G, L) ' === DISEGNA LA FUNCTIONE 4 ====
SHARED CF
FOR X = 0 TO 1 STEP G
K = FNF(X, L)
V = FNF(K, L)
F = FNF(V, L)
Y = FNF(F, L)
PSET (FNX(X), FNY(Y)), CF
NEXT
END SUB
SUB FIGEN ' CALCOLO DELLA COSTANTE UNIVERSALE DI FEIGENBAUM
'
'
A1 = 1
A2 = 0
D1 = 3.2
MAXI = 8
MAXJ = 10
PRINT " i Figenbaum Delta"
FOR I = 2 TO MAXI STEP 1
A = A1 + (A1 - A2) / D1
FOR J = 1 TO MAXJ STEP 1
X = 0
Y = 0
FOR K = 1 TO 2 ^ I STEP 1
Y = 1.0 - 2.0 * Y * X
X = A - X * X
NEXT K
A = A - X / Y
NEXT J
D = (A1 - A2) / (A - A1)
PRINT I, D
D1 = D
A2 = A1
A1 = A
NEXT I
PRINT "VALORE FINALE: ", D
K$ = INPUT$(1)
END SUB
FUNCTION FNX (X)
FNX = 500 * X + 150
END FUNCTION
FUNCTION FNY (Y)
FNY = 525 - 500 * Y
END FUNCTION
FUNCTION FNF (X, L)
FNF = L * X * (1 - X)
END FUNCTION
```