# FORTRAN Programming (PART III): NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION

In the fall of 1972 President Nixon announced that the rate of increase of inflation was decreasing. This was the first time a sitting president used the third derivative to advance his case for reelection.

Hugo Rossi. Mathematics Is an Edifice, Not a Toolbox, Notices of the AMS, v. 43, no. 10, October 1996.

Welcome to the third part is the third part of the essential introduction to the FORTRAN programming series. In this part, we will introduce the use of functions and subroutines to structure the programs. Then we use them to make a program to calculate numerical derivatives of mathematical functions.

# Numeric Solutions of the Schrödinger equation

For Schrödinger, the atom was an oscillating system — like the string of a musical instrument — for which there exist a number of modes of oscillation (fundamentals and overtones) which are interpreted as the atom’s energy states.

Armin Hermann. Werner Heisenberg 1901-1976.

This set of slides is from one of my courses in Computational Chemistry. It covers the one-dimensional solution of the Schrödinger equation using Numerov’s method. The material for this article was mainly taken from the excellent Levin textbook in the reference.
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# FORTRAN Programming: A Basic Introduction (PART II)

In college, before video games, we would amuse our- selves by posing programming exercises. One of the favorites was to write the shortest self-reproducing program. Since this is an exercise divorced from reality, the usual vehicle was FORTRAN. Actually, FORTRAN was the language of choice for the same reason that three-legged races are popular.

Ken Thompson, Communications of the ACM. 27 (8), 761–763, 1984.

This is the second part of the basic introductin to FORTRAN programming series.

# Control Statements

## Relational operators

Relational operators are used for comparison between variables

< or .lt. : less than

<= or .le. : less than or equal to

> or .gt. : greater than

>= or .ge. :greater than or equal to

== or .eq. : equal to

/= or .ne. : not equal to

### Logical operators

Logical operator are used to perfrom

.and. : Logical multiplication ( and)